THE GOLDEN KNIGHTHOOD AND OTHER PRIVILEGES GRANTED TO THE SFORZA CESARINI HOUSE
(Text by Gloria Salazar )
The Sforza family of Santa Fiora became Sforza Cesarini through the marriage of Federico Sforza with Livia Cesarini in 1697. Hence, the privilege conceded by Pope Paolo III Farnese to the Cesarini family, with Breve dated April 14 1539, was conferred to the Sforza Cesarini family and bestowed them with a Papal delegation to nominate Knights of the Golden Spur and Palatinate Counts: …utuntur, potiuntur, et gaudent, ac uti potiri, et gaudere libere et licite possint concedenti; nec non quoscumque milites auratos et comites palatino…[i]; as well as Apostolic Prothonotaries, Notaries, Judges and Doctors, and the faculty to legitimate progeny [ii].
Such privilege was conferred to the family by the successors of Pope Paolo III: Giulio III, Gregorio XIII and Sisto V [iii].
Various versions of the Breve are found in the Sforza Cesarini Archive, some translated into the vernacular, together with the petitions for obtaining the Prothonotary, the Doctorate and the Knighthood of the Golden Spur [iv].
The Archive, which is deposited since 1992 in the State Archive of Rome (“Archivio di Stato di Roma, A.S.R.”) under the name of Fondo Sforza Cesarini, is quite vast and contains numerous documents of the Savelli - including those regarding the family’s concession over the Curia and the Court - , Peretti, Conti and Mattei families , all of which became members of the Sforza Cesarini family through marriage [v].
The petitions for the privileges that are found in the Archive, date back to the half of the XVIII century, although the Sforza family – and before them the Cesarini – had exercised their faculty previously. They had the prerogative of granting, with full authority, numerous benefices but they bestowed only some and not all with the same regularity. For example, the title of Abbot was conferred for the last time in 1797 to the General Vicar of the Archbishop of Vienna [vi] and the Notariatus in 1802 [vii].
The petitions came from the various Italian States and all the countries with Catholic residents: France, Germany, Austria, Spain, Poland, Portugal, England, Ireland, Scotland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Switzerland, Holland, Malta, Russia, Monaco, Albania, Aegean Islands, and, sometimes, also from the Western Indies (Martinique, Mexico, Cuba, Guatemala, Chile, Brazil), the Eastern Indies, America and Jerusalem.
In register 105 of the Privileges [viii], in some cases, next to the name of the Invested the name of he or she who presented the nominee, people well know in the Chancellery who recommended their protégé, is also indicated, for example: Countess de la Rochefocauld; Princess Sciarra; Duchess d’Harcourt; Duchess d’Angiò; the Abbè de Sambucy; Prince di Canosa; Duke di Poli; Duke Emmanuele Ruspoli; Duke Benedetto Barberini; the Ambassador of Austria before the Holy See; the Swiss Consul before the Holy See; the Consul of Naples before the Holy See; the Queen of Spain’s Confessor and many others.
Among these presenters, there were also various religious authorities, confirming the fact that the Catholic hierarchy was not hostile towards the Privileges granted by the Sforza. Among them, it is worth recalling in 1820 Prior Father dé Camaldolesi and the Spanish Father Procurator General of the Dominicans [ix] in addition to the following Cardinals: Cardinal Litta in 1819; Cardinal Hoeffelin in 1821 and 1823; Cardinal Riario in 1823 [x].
The most frequent Petitions at the end of the XVIII regard the request for the Prothonotary and the Doctorate; instead, after the Restoration period there was a significant increase in the number of requests for the Knighthood of the Golden Spur. This was partially the result of the provisions adopted by Pope Pio VII in 1815 in respect of the Prothonotary [xi].
In 1825, following a rejected petition, the Sforza Chancellery reiterated: In accordance with the recent Constitution of Pio VII, which cannot be derogated, it is necessary to present a certificate from the respective Bishop expressly indicating worthiness of the Prothonotary and confirming the effective qualification of Doctor [xii].
The Constitution to which the letter referred to, was with all probability the Breve with which Pope Pio VII had revoked the sub-advowson in 1815 to Colleges, Faculties and Entities, but not to the Sforza Cesarini family members, as erroneously affirmed by some authors [xiii]. Nor had the Pontiff separated the title of Palatinate Count from that of Knight of the Golden Spur [xiv] as some have stated [xv]. If the privileges and delegation had been really revoked from the family, it seems unlikely that they would have been allowed, until 1841, to impudently continue to abuse of their faculty to bestow honors and nominations, provided also that they lived in the city of the Apostolic See [xvi].
The requirements needed to obtain the Prothonotary were precisely stated by the Sforza Chancellery: le document qu’on recherche par la nouvelle constitution du Pape, c’est a dire le certificat du propre Eveque, dans lequel on atteste, que le d[ict]e Ecclesiastique est d’une famille ou noble ou honnete, qu’il a au moins 25 ans, qu’il est Docteur au Theologie ou au Droit civil et canonique, qu’il est de bon moeurs, qu’il a une rente annuelle au moins de 200 ecus romains ou au biens patrimonieux (sic), ou au biens Ecclesiastique, enfin que il le avoit (sic) digne de cette decoration…[xvii]. Therefore, at some point, the Sforza Cesarini Chancellery deemed it was necessary to formally and precisely state the requirements based on which one could aspire to receive one of the privileges [xviii].
For the Apostolic Prothonotary:
I) Testimonial from the respective Bishop declaring, expressly and not implicitly, that the Petitioner is worthy of the requested honor.
II) Legal proof of being provided for or of having an ecclesiastical benefice for life, or a particular income, sufficient to sustain decorously the aspired distinction.
For the Knighthood of the Illustrious Order of the Golden Spur:
I) Pledge of Baptism proving not only birth into the Catholic Religion but also natal legitimacy.
II) Testimonial from the Bishop of the respective Diocese for Priests or of the competent civil authorities for the Laity, proving good and honest political and moral conduct.
III) Authentic proof of noble family origins together with congruent income.
IV) In absence of absolute nobility, lineage from a civil [xix] family together with stable and courtly income not deriving from a present occupation or trade.
V) The two previous points can be replaced with proof of exercising or professing the liberal arts, or of being the author of useful inventions or of erudite literary works.
For the Doctoral Degrees:
I) Baptism Pledge and Testimonial of the respective Bishop, or the Civil authorities, as per numbers I and II of the above article.
II) Study certificate with the Doctoral University Degree, High School Degree, from a public or private, provided the latter is approved, school.
III) In absence of the documents required under point II above, legal proof of being an elected and preselected candidate for occupations that require such studies will be a valid replacement .
In the Extract of the consignment of the Privileges conferred, each month by His Esteemed Excellency Duke Don Filippo Sforza Cesarini, starting on June 30 1749 [xx], the statements from 1749 to 1775 are listed and how much each Privilege, consigned by the Esteemed Sforza Cesarini House, was paid is recorded:
Privilege of Apostolic Prothonotary (ducati) 8.60
Privilege of title of Abbot “ 8.60
Privilege of Doctorate in Utroque Jure “ 8.60
Privilege of Doctorate in Theology “ 8.60
Privilege of Doctorate in Philosophy “ 8.60
Privilege of Doctorate in Medicine “ 8.60
Privilege of Knighthood “ 8.60
Although the cost of the Diplomas varied in the course of the years, it seems that the Sforza family did not profit excessively from conferring the honors and privileges. There were some particular cases in which the Dukes of the Sforza House bestowed the privileges at no cost, condoning all the expenses [xxi].
In respect of the Prothonotary, confirmation comes from the requests sent in 1817 by Priest Don Carlo de’ Principi di Presiccio (sic), nephew of the then Beato Alfonso, who having been elected Chaplain of the Treasure of San Gennaro, had to be decorated with the qualification of Apostolic Prothonotary, those bestowed by Duke Cesarini in order to avoid the expense of the Brevi Secretariat [xii].
Hence, it is possible to deduce that the concessions had equivalent value, the only distinction was the higher cost of those bestowed by the Holy See versus those conferred by the Sforza Cesarini Chancellery [xiii].
Even the Bishops warmly supported the concession of honors for their representatives and certificates of various Cardinals exist, for example: Cardinal Falzacappa Bishop of Albano [xxiv] and Cardinal Canale. An example of petitions for Privileges from foreign ecclesiastical authorities is dated 1820 when the Spanish Father Attorney General of the Dominicans requested a Prothonotary pro executione for the Archbishop of Guatemala [xxv].
Among the various aspirants to the Prothonotary, there were numerous members of the aristocracy, not only Italians [xxvi] but also foreigners, such as Count Ladislao Esterhazy in 1806 and Taddeo Josepho Count S.R.I. de et in Trautmansdorf et Weisenberg[xxvii], and many became prelates belonging to the Order of Malta, including the Chaplain with the Cross of the Gerosolimitano Order of Malta: Frà Don Giuseppe Havranek of Prague in 1756 [xxviii] and Don Lorenzo Muscas Chaplain Magistrali Sacrae Religionis Hierosolymitanae in 1796. [xxix]
Another privilege bestowed by the Sforza House was the Doctorate; also in this case many aspirants pertained to aristocratic families, primarily Italian [xxx]. However, there were also some Ecclesiastics such as the General Vicar of the Bishop of San Miniato; the Vicar Forane of the Diocese of Camerino; the Archpriest and First Dignity of the Cathedral of Civita Castellana and that of the Collegiate of Santa Maria di Serra dei Conti; a Royal Chaplain, and a Chaplain of the Ordinis San Ioannis Hyerosolimitani [xxxi].
In respect of the Knighthood of the Golden Spur, it must foremost be clarified that the Sforza Cesarini House usually bestowed this privilege concurrently to the title of Palatinate Count. It is evident, from the petitions in the Archive, that this honor was particularly desired and highly considered, at least until the 1830s. This can be deduced also from the names of the applicants, moreover, Pope Pio IV declared noblemen the Golden Knights and wanted such nobility to be perpetuated through the descendents [xxxii], hence most scholars normally affirmed that the title of Palatinate Count and Knight of the Golden Spur were primordial titles of nobility [xxxiii].
In fact, the applicants were almost exclusively members of noble families, coming both from the antique Italian States [xxxiv] and from other European States, who certainly did not aspire to a social promotion, many of them already belonged to the distinguished European aristocracy. Among the applicants there were Peers from France, a Maitre from the Hotel du Roi [xxxv] (in France), a Commander of the Royal Knights and Chamber Uxier of the King of Spain [xxxvi] and a Counselor of His Majesty the King of Poland. Many others were decorated members of other knighthoods, for example: Ordine Gerosolimitano (from Malta); Ordine del Santo Sepolcro; Ordine del Cristo; Ordine di San Michele di Sua Maestà Cristianissima; Ordine Nobile du Phenix de Hohenlohe; Ordine Meritis Leonis de Holstein Limbourg; Ordine Reale e Militare di San Luigi; Ordine Reale della Legion d’Onore; Ordine del Giglio di Francia; Ordine del Leone del Belgio; Ordine di San Gioacchino and Ordine di Carlo III.
The documentation that had to be presented often consisted in a certificate or testimonial, sometimes issued by the civil authorities, the Decurions or the Mayor – specially for the French candidates -, the College of noblemen of the city in which the candidate resided, or the military corps to which he belonged, but more frequently, from the Bishop. As we learn from a draft of a letter that is conserved in the Archive: a document is needed to obtain from the Excellent Cesarini House the Knighthood of the Golden Spur (sic), it is the Testimonial from the Bishop indicating that Mister…..is a person with good manners, has a conspicuous patrimony to live with decency and propriety hence is considered worthy and creditable of receiving the decoration of Knighthood of the Golden Spur [sic] that the Duke Cesarini usually confers. This, slightly amplified and embellished is sufficient [xxxvii].
For this reason, there are many testimonial issued by the Bishops supporting the petitions; just to cite a few, we can recall: Maria Marquise Castelvetri, Bishop of Reggio Emilia in 1749; Cardinal Luigi Ruffo Scilla, Archbishop of Naples in 1817; Cardinal Pietro Gravina, Archbishop of Palermo in 1817; Ferdinando Mattei, Archbishop of Rodi and Bishop of Malta…Crucis San Joannis Jerosolimitani, in 1815; Cardinal Carlo Oppizzoni, Archbishop of Bologna in 1817; Spiridione de’ Conti Feroli, Archbishop of Urbino in 1817; Aloisio Lambruschini, Archbishop of Genova in 1820; Ferdinando Minucci Archbishop of Florence in 1839. In these Testimonials, the Bishop specified the name of the applicant….. dignum esse obtinendi a Sede Apostolica aliquam decorationem.
Among the authoritative credentials that were produced, there are those issued by the Duke of Louxembourg, Sigismond Montmorency General des Armées de Sa Majeste le Roi de France, in 1817, and Cardinal Ludovico Prince of Rohan, in 1818. Sometimes the candidates presented their own credentials, sometimes they presented the documentation they prepared for the Order of Malta, in fact many Knights of Malta were decorated with the Knighthood of the Golden Spur [xxxviii]. Among the most representative, we recall Don Ugolino Thoma Cambi Florentino Magno Prior Ordinis Hierosolymitani in 1805 [xxxix]; and in 1819 Augusto Viè de Cesarini, Commendator of the Gerosolimitano Order and Prior Insulato San Joannis … Balii in Salliis[xl].
Instead, there were very few applicants that presented the qualification required under point five of the rules, a few musicians, some scholars, some architects, a few painters, a sculptor, an inventor, but not all these petition were granted. To exemplify which among these were accepted [xli] it is worth citing the concession for the knighthood to Gaetano Donizetti Eximio Musices Professore in 1822 [xlii]. The Knighthood of the Golden Spur was conferred in 1836 also to Tommaso Minardi Chiarissimo President of the Academy of San Luca [xliii].
It must be said that the Pontiffs had availed themselves of the faculty of granting the Knighthood to famous artists, for example Piranesi was invested to the Knighthood by Clemente XIII in 1767 and Mozart by Clemente XIV in 1770 [xliv].
For curiosity, it is worth recalling – wondering if it was a simple coincidence of names – a petition in the name of Giacomo Girolamo Casanova di Pavoda, dated 1760, for the Prothonotary and the Knighthood of the Golden Spur and addressed to Duke Sforza Cesarini [xlv]; considering that the well known Giacomo Casanova – whose maternal grandfather was named Girolamo [xlvi]- and who had undertaken the ecclesiastical career and had become Abbey, undertaking the minor orders in 1741 - , affirmed in his Memories that he was invested to Knight of the Golden Spur by Clemente XIII in 1760 [xlvii].
In respect of the transmission of the Knighthood to the descendents, some requested clarifications: It is desirable to know which style the Datary applies and the payment due, in the case a personal Privilege, such as the Equestrian Knighthood, is perpetuated in the Family. In other words, the cost if such Privilege is granted personally or if it is extended to progeny and successors. At the end of the request, there is a marginal note replying and clarifying: In the Brevi Secretariat, the title of Palatinate Count is conferred perpetually to the Family [xlviii], on a personal basis the cost is of 18 Ducati, perpetual 36 Ducati. If there are more people with the same rank, for each person it increases by 4 Ducati…. Another note follows and specifies how, once more scrupulous information was gathered, the response was that it was not possible for the Illustrious House to confer perpetually the privilege and to which effect, a special and specific declaration in the Papal Breve was necessary [xlix]. Leaving aside the analysis of the actual tenor of the Papal Breve regarding the concessions, it is possible to arrive to the conclusion that until a certain moment - rightly or wrongly - the Sforza Chancellery considered that it could confer, and maybe conferred, if not the Knighthood, probably the title of Palatinate Count, with inheritance rights for the descendants [l].
The close relationship existing between the Holy See and the Sforza House, is testified by some petitions directly addressed to the Pope and predominantly coming from abroad and which were evidently transmitted, not only in the XVIII century but also in the XIX – for example, in 1818 the petition of the Spaniard Don Josè Belzuule y Guzman who …solicita que Su Santitad (Pio VII) se digne concederle la Cruz de la Espuela de oro[lii], and another one from Belgium dated 1820 - , by the Papal Chancellery to that of the Sforza Cesarini, in which Archive they are presently conserved [liii].
The reason why, at the same time, the Holy See assumed an intransigent position towards the honors legitimately granted by the Sforza Cesarini – which until that moment had recognized them equivalent to those the Brevi Secretariate conferred [liv] -, is not clear but, unquestionably, at some point something changed [lv] and the situation appeared quite contradictory. As we have seen, many applicants for the Knighthhood were presented by local religious authorities and, in numerous occasions, the Papal Consuls continued, until the end, to write the certificates for the aspirant Knights [lvi] and many of them presented a petition for the Knighthood of the Golden Spur [lvii] themselves. Also the foreign Diplomats, credited before the Papal State, for example, the Ambassador of Austria in 1821 [lviii], the Neapolitan Consul in Naples in 1817 and in 1818 [lix] and the Swiss Consul in 1820 [lx], were supporters of some Knights. Moreover, some of them were invested to the Golden Knighthood, as for example in 1823 Don Joanne Cassio Svertorum Regis Consule apus San Sedem [lxi]; in 1825 Nicola Ignazio Negri Austrian Vice Consul in Nicea [lxii] and Tomaso Cascino Pro-Consul in Sicily of the King of England – whose supporter was the Papal Consul in Sicily [lxiii]; and finally, in 1828 Pietro de Mejan General Consul of the King of Sweden in Paris [lxiv].
The only formal protest from the Holy See was written by the Cardinal of Somalia in the Vatican rooms on March 25 1825 and addressed to Sir Nicola (sic) Ratti Procurator of Sir Duke Sforza Cesarini. The Cardinal Dean Segretary of State received new complaints from Spain and France regarding the abusive collation of Chivalry orders and of titles made in the name of His Constituent Duke Sforza Cesarini. The situation is such that two Governments object to anyone receiving the decoration of Knighthood of the Golden Spur or Palatinate Count. His Excellency must ensure that distinctions are made otherwise it will become vile merchandise that rather than being distinguished ornaments or honors they will become unfavorable preventions for those that have them. The Cardinal signing this complaint does not doubt that this protest will produced the desired results and will therefore exonerate the Ministry of the Holy Father from taking more effective measures, which otherwise would be obligatory, and with this encounter declares to Your Excellency the complaints of his most sincere esteem. [lxv].
Until then, though, the governments had recognized the honors without any complications [lxvi] this is easily assumed in view of the absence of complaints in the Sforza Cesarini Archive. The only letter requesting clarifications regarding the effective validity of the honors, found amongst the documents regarding the privileges, was written in 1856 [lxvii].
Moreover, until then the foreign governments had not distinguished between the privileges conferred by the Holy See and those conferred by the Sforza Cesarini House, as can be testified in a letter arrived from France in 1818: Je suis instruit qu’il a etè addressè tout-recemment, a la Grande Chancellerie de l’Ordre Royal de la Legion d’honneur, un diplome de Chevalier de l’Eperon d’or, delivrè par M. le Duc de Sforce Cesarini. Ce diplome se trouvent avoir etè graté; on en infèra qu’il etoit faux; en consequence on en suspendit l’autorisation et on ecrivit à M. l’Ambassadeur de France à Rome, pour prendre des renseignement à cet egard. Voilà encore un fait qui demontre evidemment la necessitè pour M. le Prince-Duc, comme pour Sa Saintete, d’avoir ici un Agent, dans leur interet, comme dans celui de l’Ordre. Cet Agent examineroit, d’abord, les demandes; les mettroit en regle d’apres les instructions qu’on lui auroit donnèes; il les passeroit ensuite a M. le Duc, ou a Sa Santeitè...[lxviii]. The Chancellery followed the invitation to use an Agent.
As can be expected, not all the petitions were satisfied. In fact, a file of Documents for Diplomas requested but not approved exists [lxix]. In some cases, notes from the Chancellery were also preserved, like in the case of Knight Giò Batta de la Motte whose petition …. lacks the requirements…[lxx]. Mister Ratti, Secretary of the Duke, customarily rejected the petitions writing to the applicants …that he could not favor them [lxxi].
Not only could the petitions be rejected, but also the privileges could be revoked once granted. There are traces of some of these cases in the Register of the Privileges; the name of the beneficiary is cancelled and on the margin there is a note directed to the Chancellery that recites, for example: The Diploma was withdrawn, considered not worthy and repealed after receiving from Naples through His Excellency Caracciolo…[lxxii]. Another type of annotation that is found on the margin of some nominations reads as follows: it did not become effective [lxxiii].
In the end, the Sforza Cesarini House – which already in 1817 was cautious to avoid conflicts with the Holy See: …the Knighthood….can be suspended, also to avoid a certain…with the Secretariat of State….[lxxiv] – “further tightened the reins”, as can be seen in a letter dated 1831 in which the Canonical Michelangelo Luciani wrote to the Chancellery…with disappointment I acknowledge the opposition that has emerged now by Supreme dispositions, in issuing the Diploma of Knight of the Golden Spur…[lxxv].
When Duke Don Salvatore Sforza Cesarini Savelli Peretti Cabrera Bobadilla Conti, the only male son of Duke Don Francesco and Donna Gertrude Conti, died in 1832, the relationship between the Sforza Cesarini family and the Holy See deteriorated to the point that in 1836 Duke Lorenzo Sforza Cesarini, successor to Don Salvatore, was forced to respond to Cardinal Camerlengo Galleffi regarding the issuance of the Apostolic Prothonotary diploma for a person presented and protected by the Cardinal. It is an honorable pleasure for me to serve Your Excellency anytime you provide me with a favorable occasion, and your protégé would benefit from these feelings if I were not, just now, unable to absent myself from the prerogatives of my family. I hope, however, to free myself from these controversies shortly and hence be able to freely oblige myself to consent to the desires of Your Excellency…[lxxvi].
This change probably resulted from the fact that the present Duke had succeeded to the previous after a long judicial suit.
In fact, the heredity of Duke Don Salvatore – son of Don Francesco and Donna Gertrude Conti - , who had no children from his wife Elisabetta dei Marchesi Cusani, passed to the Torlonia House. Don Salvatore voluntarily decided to leave the patrimony to his sister Anna, married to the Duke of Bracciano; more precisely, he left the inheritance to their son. This is incontestably stated in Register 104 of the Other Benefices which contains the nominees of the benefices conferred by the Duke of Bracciano Don Marino Torlonia during the time he administered the patrimony of the Sforza House as tutor of his son Don Giulio, heir of Duke Salvatore Sforza Cesarini…[lxxvii].
From 1832 to 1839, the inheritance remained in the hands of the Torlonia family, as documented in the Sforza Cesarini Archive in which the Register of the Orders of Duchess Anna Sforza Torlonia is conserved [lxxviii], but in 1836 the heredity was claimed by Filippo Montani, brother of the last Duke. He was, in fact, son of Gertrude Conti, wife of Don Francesco and mother of Don Salvatore Sforza. However, as she herself stated, he was born from a relationship she had with the Russian Official Carlo Marshall six years after she was a separated from her husband, although she still lived in the same house [lxxix]. It is interesting to note that Giovanni Carlo Marshall had been decorated with the Golden Knighthood on October 25 1805 [lxxx], two years before the future Duke, who took the name of Lorenzo Sforza, was born [lxxxi].
Probably, to contain the power of the Torlonia House , the Church Tribunal (Sacra Rota) resolved the controversy in favor of Filippo Montani establishing that …. the son of a married woman born under the roof of the husband is son of this latter [lxxxii]. Hence, the parties reached an agreement on September 5 1836 [lxxxiii] and Filippo Montani was subsequently recognized duke and Roman nobleman [lxxxiv] by the Heraldic Congregation of the City and on January 17 1854 took the surname and title of the last Duke changing his first name to Lorenzo [lxxxv].
However, the controversies did not end for the new Duke and although in 1836 he had begun to confer all the Privileges [lxxxvi] this did not last for long. He was in fact precluded from granting benefices and honors as he would have liked. Pope Gregorio XVI, who had consented to the succession of the titles and patrimony of the Sforza Cesarini House in favor of the new Duke, evidently preferred to maintain exclusivity on the concession Privileges which was very convenient for the Holy See [lxxxvii]. Thus, on October 31 1841 [lxxxviii] a Breve signed by the Secretary of State Cardinal Lambruschini [lxxxix] – who had himself prepared numerous certificates for aspirant knights when he was Archbishop of Genoa [xc] – established that …. considering that with time many have been nominated and in order to maintain the luster of the Order, only those accepted with Papal diploma will be considered Knights and may wear the antique decoration. Therefore, we declare that all the others do not belong to the Order and no longer have the privilege of wearing the decoration of the Order….Superseding Our rule and that of the Apostolic Chancellery regarding the deletion of an acquired right….
Omitting to analyze the real efficacy of this resolution, it must be noted that the Pope issued another provision; he took the opportunity to revoke….to anyone, from which ever Order, grade or condition, the privilege of conferring the Golden Spur however they may have obtained such privilege, including by Our predecessor Roman Pontiffs …explicitly derogating , to such effect, from the Bolle of Pope Paolo III…(April 14 1539) and subsequent ones…and declaring that in the future they do not have any value [xci]. In this way, the Sforza Cesarini Chancellery was directly affected [xcii], it was the last to have maintained this privilege [xciii].
[i] Archivio di Stato di Roma, Fondo Sforza Cesarini, Parte I etichetta rettangolare, Busta 79 n.28, n.29; Busta 847 n. 39.
[iii] A.S.R., Fondo Sforza Cesarini, Parte I etichetta rettangolare, Busta 79.
[iv] The petitions to obtain the privileges are conserved in eleven folders, so called “Buste”, of which there are no indices, while the honors that were really conferred by the Sforza Cesarini House are noted in two registers, also they do not have indices: one for the Knights, Prothonotaries and Doctors and another for the Privileges.Registro 104 (Parte I etichetta rettangolare) dei Cavalieri, Protonotari e Dottori [Register 104 (Part I rectangular label)] of the Knights, Prothonotaries and Doctors], contains the nominations name between 1836 and 1841 by Lorenzo Sforza; Registro 105 dei Privilegi [Register 105 of the Privileges] contains the nominations between 1796 and 1828. Some registers, more precisely the Register of the Privileges, concession of titles etc. 1612, 1613, 1614, 1615, regarding the nominations made between 1727 and 1795, are recorded, but cannot be found although they do not seem to be missing. For the period between 1829 and 1836, corresponding to the last years of Duke Salvatore Sforza Cesarini and the Torlonia succession, there is no documentation proving the concession of honors, although most probably, they were bestowed. Some Buste contain documents that do not regard the Privileges, for example: some correspondence related to the nomination of Francesco Sforza to Gentleman of Chamber made by the King of Spain in 1804 [iv] and the Nominations of Chaplains and Doctoral Degrees (sic) in respect of a Benefice the Family had in the Roman Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore [iv], in addition to receipts of the Sforza Administration [iv] and some theatrical and poetic work dedicated to the Dukes.
[v] “The Archive has two parts. I Parte (nn. 1-1622/5) [ Part I] contains the oldest documents and is considered by the family the most important…” (Archivio Sforza Cesarini: Istruzioni per l’uso degli Strumenti di ricerca e la consultazione). [Archive Sforza Cesarini: Instructions for using the research instruments and consultation]. Presently, the appendages to the Fondo Sforza Cesarini are, particularly in respect of Part I -: 2 large volumes of antique indices; 2 alphabetical index-books; 1 register of concordances between old and new annotations; 6 folders of the current order divided in I parte etichetta rettangolare [Part I rectangular label] and II parte etichetta ovale [Part II oval label].
[vi] A.S.R, Fondo Sforza Cesarini, Parte I etichetta rettangolare, Registro 105 de’ Privilegi, p. 22 n. 13 concessione al [concession to] Conte Giovanni Battista van Halle.
[vii] A.S.R, Fondo Sforza Cesarini, Parte I etichetta rettangolare, Registro 105 de’ Privilegi, p. 45 n. 367 concessione ad [concession to] Ignazio Palaudavics.
[viii] Register in which the Privileges actually granted are recorded.
[ix] A.S.R, Fondo Sforza Cesarini, Parte I etichetta rettangolare, Registro de’ Privilegi 105, p. 145, n. 1683.
[x] A.S.R, Fondo Sforza Cesarini, Parte I etichetta rettangolare, Registro de’ Privilegi 105: p. 144, n. 1674; p. 145, n. 1683; p. 140, n. 1609; p. 155, n. 1848; p. 159, n. 1975; p. 160 n. 1992.
[xi] de Festi C., Sull’0rigine, istituzione e prerogative dei conti palatini e dei cavalieri aurati, in Giornale Araldico Genealogico, 1885, pp.105-114.
[xii] A.S.R., Fondo Sforza Cesarini, Parte I etichetta rettangolare, Busta 216.
[xiii] Brunetti C., Privilegi dei Cavalieri aurati o dello Speron d’oro, in Rivista Araldica 1904; Pasini Frassoni F., Considerazioni sui Titoli nobiliari e sugli Ordini Equestri Pontifici, in Rivista Araldica 1914
[xiv] Mannerone C., Quesiti Araldici: Breve di Pio VII sulla Contea Palatina, in Rivista Araldica 1936, p.378; de Zeininger H.C., Quesiti Araldici: Breve di Pio VII sulla Contea Palatina, in Rivista Araldica 1936, p. 422; Dall’Onda C., Quesiti Araldici: Breve di Pio VII sulla Contea Palatina, in Rivista Araldica 1936, p. 29.
[xv] Mannucci S., I conti palatini, Firenze, 1914; Mannucci S., I Conti Palatini, in Rivista Araldica 1908; de Festi C., Sull’0rigine, istituzione e prerogative dei conti palatini e dei cavalieri aurati, in Giornale Araldico Genealogico, 1885, pp.105-114; Orlandini U., La Milizia Aurata o l’Ordine dello Speron d’oro, in Rivista Araldica 1914; Arnone C., Ordini Cavallereschi e Cavalieri, Milano, Ciarrocca, 1954; Mistruzzi di Frisinga C., Trattato di diritto nobiliare italiano, Vol.II p.125.
[xvi] This is confirmed by the fact that the last concessions of the Knighthood were granted by the Sforza Cesarini in 1841, the year in which the Papal Breve definitely revoked such faculty from anyone who still had it, and to them specifically.
[xvii] A.S.R., Fondo Sforza Cesarini, Parte I etichetta rettangolare, Busta 217.
[xviii] A.S.R, Fondo Sforza Cesarini, Parte I etichetta rettangolare, Busta 209, Foglio a stampa [printed sheet], sine data.
[xix] He belonged to a civil family, which, as requested by the Sforza Chancellery, had a certain wealth without ….exercising mechanical or trade arts….…(A.S.R., Fondo Sforza Cesarini, Parte I etichetta rettangolare, Busta 213) and lived more nobilium, in the words of an aspirant Golden Knight that … is similar to the ways of the noblemen… (A.S.R., Fondo Sforza Cesarini, Parte I etichetta rettangolare, Busta 215, supplica [petition of ] di D. Eugenio dei Baroni d’Alena).
For “more nobilium” cfr.: Norme per la ricezione nel Sovrano Militare Ordine di Malta nelle classi II e III per la Venerabile Lingua d’Italia, Gran Priorato di Lombardia e Venezia, Venezia, 1978. La prova nobiliare per “centenaria prescrizione”, par. 8, art. 41; Caracciolo del Leone, La nobiltà derivante dal dottorato, in Rivista Araldica 1937, p. 316; Mistruzzi di Frisinga C., Trattato di diritto nobiliare italiano, la nobiltà di carica, V. III, pag. 46.
In various States, prior to the unity of Italy, - for example the Duchy of Modena and the Reign of Naples – the civil class was one of the noble classes legal recognized, cfr. MARCANTONIO CARACCIOLO DEL LEONE, Nobiltà e Titolature nobiliari, in “Rivista Araldica” , 1939.
[xx] A.S.R, Fondo Sforza Cesarini, Parte I etichetta rettangolare, Busta 216.
[xxi] A.S.R, Fondo Sforza Cesarini, Parte I etichetta rettangolare, Busta 215; Registro 105 dei Privilegi, p. 69 n. 629 nomina di [nomination of] D. Giuseppe Zannoni , fatta su segnalazione dello stesso [made by indication of] Duca Sforza Cesarini; p. 58 n. 451 eccetera; p. 61 n. 488; p. 68 n. 617.
[xxii] A.S.R, Fondo Sforza Cesarini, Parte I etichetta rettangolare, Busta 213.
[xxiii] Pasini Frassoni F., Considerazioni sui Titoli nobiliari e sugli Ordini Equestri Pontifici, in Rivista Araldica 1914.
[xxiv] A.S.R, Fondo Sforza Cesarini, Parte I etichetta rettangolare, Busta 215.
[xxv] A.S.R, Fondo Sforza Cesarini, Parte I etichetta rettangolare Registro 105 dei Privilegi, p. 145 n. 1683.
[xxvi] Among these we recall the members of the family: Guidobono Cavalchini, Ferretti, Piscicelli, di Capracotta, Spinola Orsini, Incisa; Ruspoli; Capece Scandito; Capece Minutolo; Pignone del Carretto, etc.
[xxvii] A.S.R, Fondo Sforza Cesarini, Parte I etichetta rettangolare, Busta 216.
[xxviii] A.S.R, Fondo Sforza Cesarini, Parte I etichetta rettangolare, Busta 216.
[xxix] A.S.R, Fondo Sforza Cesarini, Parte I etichetta rettangolare Registro 105 dei Privilegi, p. 2 n. 10.
[xxx] Ricordiamo tra questi: il Conte di Campello; il Conte Castracane; Camillo dei Conti Caetani; Ugolino Bourbon del Monte; il Marchese Cavalletti, etc.
[xxxi]A.S.R, Fondo Sforza Cesarini, Parte I etichetta rettangolare, Busta 216, istanza del [petition dated] 1779 di [of] Michelangelo Danieli.
[xxxii] Raffaelli F., Dell’Ordine Equestre della Milizia Aurata, in Giornale Araldico Genealogico 1874, pp.247-250; Angeli L., Memorie storiche sull’antichità ed eccellenza dell’Ordine Aureato ossia dello Speron d’oro, Roma, ed. Antonio Mugnoz, 1841.
[xxxiii] The scholars in favor of the transmission of nobility were the following: Mistruzzi di Frisinga C., Trattato di diritto nobiliare italiano, Vol. I pp. 115; 117; Bertucci T., I Titoli nobiliari e cavallereschi pontifici; Arnone C., Quesiti araldici: Conti palatini in Rivista Araldica 1937, pp. 38-39; Arnone C., Ordini cavallereschi e cavalieri, Milano, Ciarrocca, 1954, p. 82; Carreri F., Dei Conti palatini, in Rivista Araldica 1903, pp. 5-14, 80-84, 173-179; Bascapè G. C., L’Ordine di Malta e gli Ordini Equestri della Chiesa nella storia e nel diritto, Milano, Ceschina, 1940; Brunetti C., Privilegi dei Cavalieri aurati o dello Speron d’oro, in Rivista Araldica 1904; Palmieri A., L’Ordine dello Speron d’oro, in Rivista Araldica 1905; Cinquetti G., Brevi cenni storici su gli Ordini Equestri nazionali, pontifici, sammarinesi e magistrali, Verona, 1936; Gheno A., Gli Ordini Equestri Pontifici, in Rivista Araldica 1905, pp. 234-238; Padaglione C., Programma delle livree, in Giornale Araldico XV. Those against it were: : De Festi C., Sull’Origine dei Conti palatini e dei Cavalieri aurati, in Giornale Araldico Genealogico 1885, p. 107; Gorga D.V., Quesiti Araldici: Conti Palatini, in Rivista Araldica 1934; Mannucci S., i Conti Palatini, Firenze, 1914; de Zeininger H.C., Essai sur l’Ordre de l’Eperon d’or, in Rivista Araldica 1935; de Zeininger H.C.; Contribution à l’histoire des comtes palatins du Latran, in Rivista Araldica 1937.
[xxxiv] We recall among them, members of the families: Hercolani in 1765; Sersale in 1810; in 1814: Marazzani Visconti and Capece Zurlo; in 1816: Grimaldi di Limosano, Papé di Valdina and Ferretti; in 1823: Oddi, Imperiali di Francavilla and Bentivoglio; Bartolini Salimbeni in 1827, etc.
[xxxv] A.S.R, Fondo Sforza Cesarini, Parte I etichetta rettangolare, Busta 217, istanza del [petition of] Conte d’Aymery del [in] 1818.
[xxxvi] A.S.R., Fondo Sforza Cesarini, Parte I etichetta rettangolare, Registro 105 de’ Privilegi, anno 1826, p. 172 n. 2110 Cavalierato aurato concesso [Golden Knighthood granted to] a D. Antonio Mendoza.
[xxxvii] A.S.R, Fondo Sforza Cesarini, Parte I etichetta rettangolare, Busta 216.
[xxxviii] A.S.R, Fondo Sforza Cesarini, Parte I etichetta rettangolare, Busta 217, istanza di [petition of] Giovanni Cristoforo Gritsch del [dated]1779.
[xxxix] A.S.R., Fondo Sforza Cesarini, Parte I etichetta rettangolare, Registro 105 de’ Privilegi p 65 n. 564.
[xl] A.S.R., Fondo Sforza Cesarini, Parte I etichetta rettangolare, Registro 105 de’ Privilegi p. 137 n. 1556.
[xli] A.S.R., Fondo Sforza Cesarini, Parte I etichetta rettangolare, Registro 105 dei Privilegi: p. 158 n. 1944.
[xlii] A.S.R., Fondo Sforza Cesarini, Parte I etichetta rettangolare, Busta 216.
[xliii] A.S.R., Fondo Sforza Cesarini, Parte I etichetta rettangolare, Registro 104 dei Cavalieri, Protonotari e Dottori, p. 1 verso [verse], n. 8.
[xliv] de Zeininger H. C., Contribution à l’histoire des Ordres de Chevalerie pontificaux, in Rivista Araldica 1939, p. 174 nota [note] 4.
[xlv] A.S.R, Fondo Sforza Cesarini, Parte I etichetta rettangolare, Busta 207.
[xlvi] Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani, Roma, Istituto dell’Enciclopedia Italiana, vol. XXI voce [item] Casanova Giacomo e vol. XLV voce [item] Farusi Zanetta.
[xlvii] de Zeininger H. C., Contribution à l’histoire des Ordres de Chevalerie pontificaux, in Rivista Araldica 1939, p. 174 nota [note] 5.
[xlviii] Count de Zeininger affirmed that also the Golden Knighthood was conferred through inheritance at least in two circumstances known to him, by Pio V in 1517 and by Urbano VIII in 1635. Cfr. de Zeininger H.C.; L’Heredité dans les Ordres de chevalerie, in Rivista Araldica 1937, p. 376 note 4.
[xlix] A.S.R., Fondo Sforza Cesarini, Parte I etichetta rettangolare, Registro de’ Privilegi, foglio sciolto [loose sheet of paper].
[l] The Noble and Heraldic Italian Code, resolved the question of the transmission of the title of Palatinate Count establishing, under article 34 of the Regulations of the Noble Italian State of 1943,: … the title of Palatinate Count is not renewable and cannot be transmitted without specific disposition indicated in the concession Diploma. The concessions of this Title made in favor of a specific College are not are not recognized nor those made through a perpetual delegation of powers from the Pope or Emperor, except those already recognized.
This disposition seems severely unfair: whilst it admits the validity of the concessions granted by the delegates provided they have been recognized in the past, it refuses entirely the validity of similar concessions in the future if they have not been previously recognized in the past.
According to Mistruzzi di Frisinga this norm is therefore null and void of any juridical effect.
The illegitimacy of this disposition is furthermore evidenced by the contradiction it creates with the Carolo-Albertino Statute which, being the fundamental Statute of the Reign of Italy, could not be modified. In fact, article 79 of the latter guarantees the tenure of noble titles to those that have the right to have them.
Moreover and generalizing, article 34, did not take into account numerous variables, like, for example, the differences between the Imperial and Papal designation of the Palatinate title.
On this matter, the position adopted by the Sovereign Military Order of Malta, is more cautious, it subordinates the recognition to an analysis of the way the title was conferred: The inherited concession of the Papal title of Palatinate Count confers generous nobility only if combined to the attribution of Golden Knight. The concessions granted by the delegates of the Pope, must be evaluated with absolute severity, in particular to verify if the delegates had the powers to confer the title and nobility. In the case of concessions to the subjects of states not depending from the Pope, proof that the single States had obtained execution rights must be obtained. (Norme per la ricezione nel Sovrano Militare Ordine di Malta nelle classi II e III per la Venerabile Lingua d’Italia, Gran Priorato di Lombardia e Venezia, Venezia, 1978, Massimario nobiliare: Concessioni della nobiltà ereditaria e dei titoli sul cognome o su predicati allodiali od onorifici, par.3 art.13).
However, this disposition of the Order, does not take into account some aspects of the issue, several of which directly pertain to the Sforza Chancellery. First of all, that the inherited Papal title of Palatinate Count was, by its own definition, transmittable. Therefore, as much as the Popes desired – as confirmed by the numerous studies - both the personal title of Palatinate Count and the title of Golden Knight, conferred through Papal entrustment, generate inherited nobility for the descendants. Lastly, that the concession of the title of Palatinate Count and Knight of the Golden Spur conferred by the Papal delegates - among these primarily the Sforza Cesarini family -, had the same value as those granted by the Pope in person and as such were recognized by the Holy See and the other Italian States (prior to the unification of Italy).
[li] A.S.R., Fondo Sforza Cesarini, Parte I etichetta rettangolare, Busta 214, Supplica del [Petition of] Cappellano Pietro Antonio Seifrid di [of] Madrid nel [in] 1782.
[lii] A.S.R., Fondo Sforza Cesarini, Parte I etichetta rettangolare, Busta 216.
[liii]A.S.R., Fondo Sforza Cesarini, Parte I etichetta rettangolare, Busta 213; Busta 214.
[liv] Mistruzzi di Frisinga, Trattato di diritto nobiliare italiano, Vol. II p. 124.
[lv] Marino G., Sull’antico privilegio della famiglia Cesarini, in Rivista Araldica 1961, pp.221-222.
[lvi] A.S.R., Fondo Sforza Cesarini, Parte I etichetta rettangolare, Busta 215, we recall the Papal General Consul in Naples Don Tommaso Ferro, in 1816 and 1820 the General Consul in the Reigns of Andalusia and the Ocean Sea, Giuseppe Maria Giove – who subsequently requested the Knighthood of the Golden Spur for himself and for the Vice Consul of Alchesira: Demetrio Asani – and the General Consul of the Holy See before His Majesty the King of Sardegna in the Duchy of Genoa, Giovanni Pisani, in 1829 the Consul in Sicily Giacomo Filippo Pizzorno and in 1839 the Papal General Consul Domenico Albertarij.
[lvii] A.S.R., Fondo Sforza Cesarini, Parte I etichetta rettangolare, Registro 104 dei Cavalieri, Protonotari e Dottori, in 1796, Count Emmanuele Secchi Papal Vice Consul in Portu in Spain [lvii] Count Stefano Marsucco [lvii]; Don Antonio Pio Casabassa Illustrious Consul Papae in Tarraconae in Spain in 1802 [lvii]; Don Andrea Le Roy, Hispalanesi Papal Vice Consul – who had been presented by the Secretary of Cardinal Bertazzoli – in 1824 [lvii]; and finally the Papal Consul in Malta Emanuelle (sic) lanzon, again in 1838.
[lviii] A.S.R., Fondo Sforza Cesarini, Parte I etichetta rettangolare, Registro 105 de’ Privilegi, p. 154 n. 1849.
[lix] A.S.R., Fondo Sforza Cesarini, Parte I etichetta rettangolare Registro 105 de’ Privilegi p. 111 n. 1120; p. 130 n. 1408.
[lx] A.S.R., Fondo Sforza Cesarini, Parte I etichetta rettangolare Registro 105 de’ Privilegi p. 148, n. 1740, n. 1741; p. 149 n. 1755, 1756, 1757; p. 150, n. 1771.
[lxi] A.S.R., Fondo Sforza Cesarini, Parte I etichetta rettangolare Registro 105 de’ Privilegi p. 160 n. 1983.
[lxii] A.S.R., Fondo Sforza Cesarini, Parte I etichetta rettangolare Registro 105 de’ Privilegi p.177 n. 2196.
[lxiii] A.S.R., Fondo Sforza Cesarini, Parte I etichetta rettangolare Registro 105 de’ Privilegi p. 167, n. 2025.
[lxiv] A.S.R., Fondo Sforza Cesarini, Parte I etichetta rettangolare Registro 105 de’ Privilegi p. 176 n. 2169.
[lxv] A.S.R., Fondo Sforza Cesarini, Parte I etichetta rettangolare, Busta 217.
[lxvi] As is proven in an original diploma of Golden Knight and Palatinate Count of 1817 in favor of Don Giovanni Nunziante di Sarno, seen by this General Consulate of the Reign of the Two Sicilies in Rome (Diploma di Cavaliere dello Speron d’Oro e Conte Palatino a favore di Giovanni Maria Nunziante di Sarno. Archivio di casa Nunziante, Salerno).
[lxvii] A.S.R., Fondo Sforza Cesarini, Parte I etichetta rettangolare, Registro 104 dei Cavalieri, Protonotari e Dottori, letter dated Rome March 4 1856, from Doctor Ermanno Brandeis di Argovia and attached to his nomination, n. 47 dated 20 February 1840… j’ai appris dans le tems (sic) que certaines contestation s’etaient elevées entre Votre Grace et la Saint Siege sur les privileges et les droits appartenant à Votre Illustre famille de conferer la decoration de l’Eperon d’or. Je supplie Votre Grace de ne pas me regarder comme indiscret, si je viens vous demander aujourd’hui, Monsieur le Duc, si je puis bien legalement faire usage de la distinction ….
[lxviii] A.S.R., Fondo Sforza Cesarini, Parte I etichetta rettangolare, Registro 105 de’ Privilegi, Letter included within the Register.
[lxix] A.S.R, Fondo Sforza Cesarini, Parte I etichetta rettangolare, Busta 209.
[lxx] A.S.R, Fondo Sforza Cesarini, Parte I etichetta rettangolare, Busta 214.
[lxxi] A.S.R, Fondo Sforza Cesarini, Parte I etichetta rettangolare, Busta 214.
[lxxii] A.S.R, Fondo Sforza Cesarini, Parte I etichetta rettangolare, Registro 105 dei Privilegi, Diploma of Knighthood of the Golden Spur dated 1816 in favor of the Nobleman Nicola Tadini.
[lxxiii] A.S.R, Fondo Sforza Cesarini, Parte I etichetta rettangolare, Registro 105 dei Privilegi p. 68 n. 616, p. 58, n. 451; p. 58 n. 453.
[lxxiv] A.S.R., Fondo Sforza Cesarini, Parte I etichetta rettangolare, Busta 217.
[lxxv] A.S.R., Fondo Sforza Cesarini, Parte I etichetta rettangolare, Busta 217.
[lxxvi] A.S.R., Fondo Sforza Cesarini, Parte I etichetta rettangolare, Busta 214.
[lxxvii] A.S.R., Fondo Sforza Cesarini, Parte I etichetta rettangolare Registro 104 de Benefici diversi [Register 104 of the Other Benefices] p. 90. We cannot know if the Torlonia family made any nominations between 1832 and 1836, before the inheritance passed to the hands of Lorenzo Sforza. We presume that some concessions of Golden Knighthood were granted considering the existence of a diploma issued in that period and in the hands of a family from the Marche. Neither do we know if Duke Salvatore Sforza Cesarini practiced his faculty to grant any of the privileges during the last years of his life, in other words between 1829 and 1832, considering that in Register 105 – which had not been completely used – the last nominations date back to 1829.
[lxxviii] A.S.R., Fondo Sforza Cesarini, Indice della Parte I, Vol. II, Casa Sforza, Descrizione di Libri Mastri, giustificazioni etc. [Description of Master Books, justifications, etc.], existing in the book-keeping.
[lxxix] Amayden T., Storia delle famiglie romane, Roma, 1907; Bertini C. A. , Famiglie Romane: Cesarini, in Rivista Araldica, 1909, pp.47-52; di Broilo F., Dell’origine degli Attendoli Sforza, in Rivista Araldica, 1911, pp. 400-403; Del Pino A. , Sforza Cesarini, in Rivista Araldica, 1905 pp. 372-374; de Zeininger H. C., Contribution à l’histoire des comtes palatins du Latran, in Rivista Araldica 1937, p. 396 nota 3; de Zeininger H.C., Quesiti araldici: Conti palatini in Rivista Araldica 1937, pp.87-88; de Zeininger H.C., Contribution à l’histoire des Ordres de Chevalerie pontificaux, in Rivista Araldica 1939, p. 175 nota 3; Carpaneto G.; Le famiglie nobili romane, Roma, Rendina ed., 2001, pp. (349)-358; Rendina C., Famiglie nobili romane, Roma, Newton Compton ed., 2006, vol.II, pp. (568)-569.
[lxxx] A.S.R., Fondo Sforza Cesarini, Parte I etichetta rettangolare Registro 105 dei Privilegi, p. 68 n. 614.
[lxxxi] Spreti V., Enciclopedia Storico Nobiliare Italiana: Sforza Cesarini, pp. 306-308.
[lxxxii] Bertini C. A., Famiglie Romane: Cesarini, in Rivista Araldica, 1909, pp.47-52; Del Pino A., Sforza Cesarini, in Rivista Araldica, 1905, pp. 372-374.
[lxxxiii] A.S.R., Fondo Sforza Cesarini, Parte I etichetta rettangolare Registro 104 dei Benefici diversi [of the Other Benefices], p. 90; A.S.R., Fondo Sforza Cesarini, Index of Parte I, Vol. II, Primogenitura ed eredità [Primogeniture and heredity], 1836 5 settembre: Position regarding the transition between Duke Don Lorenzo Sforza and Duke Don Marino Torlonia…
[lxxxiv] Spreti V., Enciclopedia Araldico Genealogica Italiana: Sforza Cesarini, pp. 306-308.
[lxxxv] di Broilo F., Dell’origine degli Attendoli Sforza, in Rivista Araldica, 1911, pp. 401-403; Bertini C. A. , Famiglie Romane: Cesarini, in Rivista Araldica, 1909, p.49.
[lxxxvi] A.S.R., Fondo Sforza Cesarini, Parte I etichetta rettangolare, Registro 104 di Cavalieri, Protonotari e Dottori, contains the nominations made between 1836 and 1841 by Lorenzo Sforza: 52 Knights, 19 Doctorates and 1 Prothonotary.
[lxxxvii] de Zeininger H.C., Quesiti Araldici: Conti palatini, in Rivista Araldica 1937, p.88.
[lxxxviii] Angeli L., Memorie storiche sull’antichità ed eccellenza dell’Ordine Aureato ossia dello Speron d’oro, Roma, ed. Antonio Mugnoz, 1841, pp. 164 – 170: Breve of Gregorio XVI… which established some issues about the Equestrian Order of the Golden Spur; Giaccheri P., Commentario degli Ordini Equestri; Cuomo R, Ordini Cavallereschi antichi e moderni, Napoli, 1894, Vol. II pp. 746-751.
[lxxxix] Aloisio Lambruschini became Secretary of State in 1836, after he had been Archbishop of Genoa since 1819, cfr., Migne J.P., Dictionnaire des Cardinaux, Paris, 1857.
[xc] A.S.R., Fondo Sforza Cesarini, Parte I etichetta rettangolare, Busta 215.
[xci] An additional provision was taken by Pio X with Breve dated 7 February 1905, cfr. Breve di S.S. Pio X sugli Ordini della Milizia Aurata di S. Silvestro e di Cristo, in Rivista Araldica 1935, p.239-242. Some scholars challenged each other on the interpretation of this Breve, see Arnone C. and de Zeininger H. C., in Rivista Araldica 1936, 1937, Quesiti Araldici: Conti palatini.
[xcii] Gheno A., Gli Ordini Equestri Pontifici, in Rivista Araldica, 1905, pp. 230-238; de Zeininger H. C., Essai sur l’ordre de l’Eperon d’or, in Rivista Araldica 1935, pp. 52-61; de Zeininger H. C., Contribution à l’histoire des comtes palatins du Latran, in Rivista Araldica 1937; Arnone C., Ordini Cavallereschi e Cavalieri, Milano, Ciarrocca, 1954; Bascapè G. C., L’Ordine di Malta e gli Ordini Equestri della Chiesa nella storia e nel diritto, Milano, Ceschina, 1940.
[xciii] In effect, the last privileges of the Golden Knighthood granted by the Sforza House, date back to 1841.